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Issue 2, 2016
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Controlled radical polymerization and in-depth mass-spectrometric characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s and their photopatterning on surfaces

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Abstract

The preparation and characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) bearing a polystyrene backbone via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and their photolithographic patterning on silicon wafers is reported. The controlled radical polymerization of the styrenic ionic liquid (IL) monomers ([BVBIM]X, X = Cl or Tf2N) by RAFT polymerization is investigated in detail. We provide a general synthetic tool to access this class of PILs with controlled molecular weight and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (2000 g mol−1Mn ≤ 10 000 g mol−1 with dispersities between 1.4 and 1.3 for p([BVBIM]Cl); 2100 g mol−1MP ≤ 14 000 g mol−1 for p([BVBIM]Tf2N)). More importantly, we provide an in-depth characterization of the PILs and demonstrate a detailed mass spectrometric analysis via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) as well as – for the first time for PILs – electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Importantly, p([BVBIM]Cl) and p([DMVBIM]Tf2N) were photochemically patterned on silicon wafers. Therefore, a RAFT agent carrying a photoactive group based on ortho-quinodimethane chemistry – more precisely photoenol chemistry – was photochemically linked for subsequent controlled radical polymerization of [BVBIM]Cl and [DMVBIM]Tf2N. The successful spatially-resolved photografting is evidenced by surface-sensitive characterization methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The presented method allows for the functionalization of diverse surfaces with poly(ionic liquid)s.

Graphical abstract: Controlled radical polymerization and in-depth mass-spectrometric characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s and their photopatterning on surfaces

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Aug 2015, accepted on 22 Oct 2015 and first published on 26 Oct 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5PY01320H
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Citation: Polym. Chem., 2016,7, 451-461
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Controlled radical polymerization and in-depth mass-spectrometric characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s and their photopatterning on surfaces

    J. Steinkoenig, F. R. Bloesser, B. Huber, A. Welle, V. Trouillet, S. M. Weidner, L. Barner, P. W. Roesky, J. Yuan, A. S. Goldmann and C. Barner-Kowollik, Polym. Chem., 2016, 7, 451
    DOI: 10.1039/C5PY01320H

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