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Issue 9, 2015
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Oxygen profiling of the unsaturated zone using direct push drilling

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Abstract

A methodology for oxygen profile measurements in the unsaturated zone is developed based on direct push drilling using sampling liners equipped with homemade silicone septa. The oxygen measurement is carried out by puncturing the septum with a commercial retractable optode needle fitted with a fluorescent tip. Metrological characteristics and method validation were carried out under laboratory conditions using different levels of oxygen and various water contents. The relative standard deviations under dry and water saturated soil conditions were less than 0.3% and 5% for 0.5 mg Lāˆ’1 of oxygen and less than 2% and 3% for 9 mg Lāˆ’1. Field demonstrations in a calcareous-sandstone soil aquifer treatment system with a layered clayey, marl and sandstone lithology of widely different water contents provided down to 30 m deep profiles of the dissolved oxygen level with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. A single sensor was used for over 50 field measurements, though recalibration was required after approximately 30 measurements due to the deterioration of the fluorescent tip.

Graphical abstract: Oxygen profiling of the unsaturated zone using direct push drilling

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
17 Jun 2015
Accepted
24 Jul 2015
First published
06 Aug 2015

Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015,17, 1680-1688
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Oxygen profiling of the unsaturated zone using direct push drilling

A. Sopilniak, R. Elkayam, O. Lev and T. Elad, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015, 17, 1680
DOI: 10.1039/C5EM00270B

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