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Issue 18, 2015
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Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope

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Abstract

Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and can be contracted by humans and herbivorous mammals by inhalation, ingestion, or cutaneous exposure to bacterial spores. Due to its stability and disease potential, B. anthracis is a recognized biothreat agent and robust detection and viability methods are needed to identify spores from unknown samples. Here we report the use of smartphone-based microscopy (SPM) in combination with a simple microfluidic incubation device (MID) to detect 50 to 5000 B. anthracis Sterne spores in 3 to 5 hours. This technique relies on optical monitoring of the conversion of the ∼1 μm spores to the filamentous vegetative cells that range from tens to hundreds of micrometers in length. This distinguishing filament formation is unique to B. anthracis as compared to other members of the Bacillus cereus group. A unique feature of this approach is that the sample integrity is maintained, and the vegetative biomass can be removed from the chip for secondary molecular analysis such as PCR. Compared with existing chip-based and rapid viability PCR methods, this new approach reduces assay time by almost half, and is highly sensitive, specific, and cost effective.

Graphical abstract: Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope

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Article information


Submitted
30 Jun 2015
Accepted
05 Aug 2015
First published
06 Aug 2015

Analyst, 2015,140, 6269-6276
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope

J. R. Hutchison, R. L. Erikson, A. M. Sheen, R. M. Ozanich and R. T. Kelly, Analyst, 2015, 140, 6269
DOI: 10.1039/C5AN01304F

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