Issue 10, 2015

Energetics of atomic scale structure changes in graphene


The presence of defects in graphene has an essential influence on its physical and chemical properties. The formation, behaviour and healing of defects are determined by energetic characteristics of atomic scale structure changes. In this article, we review recent studies devoted to atomic scale reactions during thermally activated and irradiation-induced processes in graphene. The formation energies of vacancies, adatoms and topological defects are discussed. Defect formation, healing and migration are quantified in terms of activation energies (barriers) for thermally activated processes and by threshold energies for processes occurring under electron irradiation. The energetics of defects in the graphene interior and at the edge is analysed. The effects of applied strain and a close proximity of the edge on the energetics of atomic scale reactions are overviewed. Particular attention is given to problems where further studies are required.

Graphical abstract: Energetics of atomic scale structure changes in graphene

Article information

Article type
Review Article
18 Dec 2014
First published
26 Mar 2015
This article is Open Access
Creative Commons BY license

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015,44, 3143-3176

Author version available

Energetics of atomic scale structure changes in graphene

S. T. Skowron, I. V. Lebedeva, A. M. Popov and E. Bichoutskaia, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015, 44, 3143 DOI: 10.1039/C4CS00499J

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