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Issue 25, 2015

Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: new challenges and opportunities

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Abstract

Bioelectronics, electronic technologies that interface with biological systems, are experiencing rapid growth in terms of technology development and applications, especially in neuroscience and neuroprosthetic research. The parallel growth with optogenetics and in vivo multi-photon microscopy has also begun to generate great enthusiasm for simultaneous applications with bioelectronic technologies. However, emerging research showing artefact contaminated data highlight the need for understanding the fundamental physical principles that critically impact experimental results and complicate their interpretation. This review covers four major topics: (1) material dependent properties of the photoelectric effect (conductor, semiconductor, organic, photoelectric work function (band gap)); (2) optic dependent properties of the photoelectric effect (single photon, multiphoton, entangled biphoton, intensity, wavelength, coherence); (3) strategies and limitations for avoiding/minimizing photoelectric effects; and (4) advantages of and applications for light-based bioelectronics (photo-bioelectronics).

Graphical abstract: Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: new challenges and opportunities

Article information


Submitted
16 Jan 2015
Accepted
07 Apr 2015
First published
13 Apr 2015

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2015,3, 4965-4978
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: new challenges and opportunities

T. D. Y. Kozai and A. L. Vazquez, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2015, 3, 4965 DOI: 10.1039/C5TB00108K

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