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Issue 9, 2014
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Lead-free organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications

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Abstract

Already exhibiting solar to electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 17%, organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising emerging contenders in the drive to provide a cheap and clean source of energy. One concern however, is the potential toxicology issue of lead, a key component in the archetypical material. The most likely substitute is tin, which like lead, is also a group 14 metal. While organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites have shown good semiconducting behaviour, the instability of tin in its 2+ oxidation state has thus far proved to be an overwhelming challenge. Here, we report the first completely lead-free, CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite solar cell processed on a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold, reaching efficiencies of over 6% under 1 sun illumination. Remarkably, we achieve open circuit voltages over 0.88 V from a material which has a 1.23 eV band gap.

Graphical abstract: Lead-free organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications

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Article information


Submitted
04 Apr 2014
Accepted
29 Apr 2014
First published
01 May 2014

Energy Environ. Sci., 2014,7, 3061-3068
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Lead-free organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz and H. J. Snaith, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 3061
DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01076K

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