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Issue 5, 2005
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Flow-through optical fiber sensor for automatic sulfide determination in waters by multisyringe flow injection analysis using solid-phase reflectometry

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Abstract

A software-controlled flow-through optical fiber diffuse reflectance sensor capitalized on the implementation of disk-based solid-phase pre-concentration schemes in a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) set-up is proposed for the trace determination of sulfide in environmental waters and wastewaters. The fully automated flowing methodology is based on Fischer's coupling reaction of sulfide with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidizing reagent in a 0.5 M HCl medium. The on-line generated methylene blue dye is subsequently delivered downstream to a dedicated optode cell furnished with an octadecyl-chemically modified (C18) disk, while continuously recording the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the pre-concentrated compound. A double regeneration protocol is finally executed to warrant minimum background noise and negligible baseline. Under the optimized chemical and hydrodynamic conditions, the optosensing MSFIA method features coefficients of variation better than 0.7% (n = 10) at 50 µg l−1 concentration, a linear working range of 20–200 µg l−1 sulfide, a 3σblank detection limit of 2.9 µg l−1 sulfide and an injection throughput of 8 h−1 for a pre-concentration sample volume of 2.9 ml. The interfacing of the robust and versatile multisyringe flow injection-based optode with a plug-in spectrophotometer furnished with a light emitting diode assures the miniaturization of the overall flow analyzer, which is, thus, readily adaptable to real-time monitoring schemes. The potential of the multisyringe flow method was assessed via the determination of sulfide traces in water samples of different complexity (namely, freshwater, seawater and wastewater).

Graphical abstract: Flow-through optical fiber sensor for automatic sulfide determination in waters by multisyringe flow injection analysis using solid-phase reflectometry

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Article information


Submitted
27 Oct 2004
Accepted
16 Feb 2005
First published
16 Mar 2005

Analyst, 2005,130, 644-651
Article type
Paper

Flow-through optical fiber sensor for automatic sulfide determination in waters by multisyringe flow injection analysis using solid-phase reflectometry

L. Ferrer, G. de Armas, M. Miró, J. M. Estela and V. Cerdà, Analyst, 2005, 130, 644
DOI: 10.1039/B416473C

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