An independently addressable microbiosensor array: What are the limits of sensing element density?
A microdisc sensor array, prepared by thin film technology, has been used as a model for miniaturized multi-functional biosensors. It consists of a series of wells, 20 μm in diameter, possessing a 1000 Å Pt layer at the bottom that serves as the indicating electrode. The depth of the wells ranged from 2.3–24 μm, depending on the photoresist employed and the spinning speed used to coat the electrode interconnect grid. Ten such wells were arranged in a circular array within an area of radius 130 μm. The center to center distance between any two of the discs ranged from 30 to 155 μm. Each disc is connected by a conductive film line to corresponding pads on the side of the sensor chip. A cylinder placed on top of the chip array formed the electrochemical cell into which a common reference and counter electrode were placed. The reference electrode was operated at ground potential.
Prior to the evaluation of enzyme sensors, an assessment of “chemical cross-talk”, the perturbation of sensor response resulting from the overlap of proximal diffusion layers, was made using Fe(CN)64−. The preliminary conclusion is that the sensing elements probably must be separated by about 100 μm in order to avoid interference from adjacent sensors.
A technique was developed for the precision delivery of enzyme and cross-linking agent to the 2.3 μm cavity, having a capacity of 4 pL. This procedure makes possible the preparation of sensor arrays capable of detecting different analytes by employing different enzymes. The sensors gave reasonably rapid (2–4 s) response with linearity (up to about 10 mM. However, the sensors in the center of the array clearly showed the effects of depletion of substrates by the surrounding sensors.