Vesicular release dynamics are altered by the interaction between the chemical cargo and vesicle membrane lipids†
The release of the cargo from soft vesicles, an essential process for chemical delivery, is mediated by multiple factors. Among them, the regulation by the interaction between the chemical cargo species and the vesicular membrane, widely existing in all vesicles, has not been investigated to date. Yet, these interactions hold the potential to complicate the release process. We used liposomes loaded with different monoamines, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), to simulate vesicular release and to monitor the dynamics of chemical release from isolated vesicles during vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry (VIEC). The release of DA from liposomes presents a longer release time compared to 5-HT. Modelling the release time showed that DA filled vesicles had a higher percentage of events where the time for the peak fall was better fit to a double exponential (DblExp) decay function, suggesting multiple kinetic steps in the release. By fitting to a desorption–release model, where the transmitters adsorbed to the vesicle membrane, the dissociation rates of DA and 5-HT from the liposome membrane were estimated. DA has a lower desorption rate constant, which leads to slower DA release than that observed for 5-HT, whereas there is little difference in pore size. The alteration of vesicular release dynamics due to the interaction between the chemical cargo and vesicle membrane lipids provides an important mechanism to regulate vesicular release in chemical and physiological processes. It is highly possible that this introduces a fundamental chemical regulation difference between transmitters during exocytosis.