Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 31, 2021, Issue in Progress

Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene derivatives

Author affiliations


We designed and synthesized unsubstituted 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene 4,4′-BBT and its silyl-substituted derivatives 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT and 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT with one or two tert-butyldimethylsilyl groups on each thiophene ring, as new π-building blocks in emitters, photosensitizers and semiconductors for organic optoelectronic devices. The characterization of 4,4′-BBT, 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT and 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT was successfully determined by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR measurements, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis, photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Moreover, a single-crystal X-ray structural analysis was successfully made for 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT and 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT. The photoabsorption and fluorescence maxima (λabsmax and λflmax) of the three 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene derivatives in toluene exhibit bathochromic shifts in the order of 4,4′-BBT (359 nm and 410 nm) < 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT (366 nm and 420 nm) < 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT (371 nm and 451 nm). The HOMO and LUMO energy levels rise in the order of 4,4′-BBT (−5.55 eV and −2.39 eV) < 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT (−5.45 eV and −2.34 eV) < 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT (−5.34 eV and −2.30 eV), but the rise of the HOMO energy level is larger than that of the LUMO energy level, resulting in the bathochromic shift of the photoabsorption band from 4,4′-BBT to 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT. The fluorescence quantum yields (Φfl) of 4,4′-BBT, 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT and 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT in toluene are 0.41, 0.41 and 0.36, respectively. It is worth mentioning that in the solid state 1,1′-Si-4,4′-BBT and 1,1′,3,3′-Si-4,4′-BBT show relatively high Φfl-solid values of 0.22 and 0.25, respectively, whereas 4,4′-BBT exhibits poor solid-state fluorescence properties (Φfl-solid < 0.02). This work provides an efficient synthetic method for the 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene derivatives and their photophysical properties in the solution and solid state, electrochemical properties and X-ray crystal structures.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene derivatives

Supplementary files

Article information

13 Feb 2021
19 May 2021
First published
25 May 2021

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2021,11, 18870-18880
Article type

Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of 4,4′-bibenzo[c]thiophene derivatives

K. Obayashi, K. Imato, S. Aoyama, T. Enoki, S. Akiyama, M. Ishida, S. Suga, K. Mitsudo and Y. Ooyama, RSC Adv., 2021, 11, 18870 DOI: 10.1039/D1RA01189H

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.

Social activity

Search articles by author