Synthesis, characterization, and properties of 1,2,8,9-tetraazido-4,6-dioxol-nonane: a promising multi-azido ether energetic plasticizer for glycidyl azide polymer†
A novel multi-azido ether energetic plasticizer 1,2,8,9-tetraazido-4,6-dioxol-nonane (TADONA) was designed and synthesized through consecutive azidonation and condensation reactions, and its structure was characterized and confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. Its impact sensitivity was measured as 25.2 J, friction sensitivity was measured as 160 N, its thermal decomposition peak temperature was 236.2 °C, and its glass transition temperature (Tg) was −88.9 °C, which indicated that TADONA was mechanically insensitive with good thermal stability and excellent low-temperature properties. Theoretical calculations indicated that TADONA possessed energetic properties superior to some reported azide plasticizers and good miscibility with glycidyl azide polymer (GAP). Moreover, a notable effect on the adjustment of the viscosity of GAP was attributed to TADONA, and the higher the content of TADONA in GAP, the more optimal the adjustment effect that was achieved. Furthermore, the Tg for TADONA + GAP (1 : 10), TADONA + GAP (2 : 10), TADONA + GAP (3 : 10), and TADONA + GAP (4 : 10) was determined as −54.4 °C, −58.8 °C, −61.9 °C, and −65.8 °C, respectively, which were much lower than that of GAP (−49.1 °C). Therefore, TADONA exhibited an excellent plasticizing effect on GAP, demonstrating considerable application potential in GAP-based propellants and explosives.