Doping and ion substitution in colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals
The past decade has witnessed tremendous advances in synthesis of metal halide perovskites and their use for a rich variety of optoelectronics applications. Metal halide perovskite has the general formula ABX3, where A is a monovalent cation (which can be either organic (e.g., CH3NH3+ (MA), CH(NH2)2+ (FA)) or inorganic (e.g., Cs+)), B is a divalent metal cation (usually Pb2+), and X is a halogen anion (Cl−, Br−, I−). Particularly, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of metal halide perovskites have garnered much attention due to the recent rapid development of perovskite nanocrystals. The introduction of capping ligands enables the synthesis of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals which offer new insight into dimension-dependent physical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. It is notable that doping and ion substitution represent effective strategies for tailoring the optoelectronic properties (e.g., absorption band gap, PL emission, and quantum yield (QY)) and stabilities of perovskite nanocrystals. The doping and ion substitution processes can be performed during or after the synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals by incorporating new A′, B′, or X′ site ions into the A, B, or X sites of ABX3 perovskites. Interestingly, both isovalent and heterovalent doping and ion substitution can be conducted on colloidal perovskite nanocrystals. In this review, the general background of perovskite nanocrystals synthesis is first introduced. The effects of A-site, B-site, and X-site ionic doping and substitution on the optoelectronic properties and stabilities of colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals are then detailed. Finally, possible applications and future research directions of doped and ion-substituted colloidal perovskite nanocrystals are also discussed.