Functional nanoprobes for ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules: an update
With the rapidly increasing demands for ultrasensitive biodetection, the design and applications of functional nanoprobes have attracted substantial interest for biosensing with optical, electrochemical, and various other means. In particular, given the comparable sizes of nanomaterials and biomolecules, there exists plenty of opportunities to develop functional nanoprobes with biomolecules for highly sensitive and selective biosensing. Over the past decade, numerous nanoprobes have been developed for ultrasensitive bioaffinity sensing of proteins and nucleic acids in both laboratory and clinical applications. In this review, we provide an update on the recent advances in this direction, particularly in the past two years, which reflects new progress since the publication of our last review on the same topic in Chem. Soc. Rev. The types of probes under discussion include: (i) nanoamplifier probes: one nanomaterial loaded with multiple biomolecules; (ii) quantum dots probes: fluorescent nanomaterials with high brightness; (iii) superquenching nanoprobes: fluorescent background suppression; (iv) nanoscale Raman probes: nanoscale surface-enhanced Raman resonance scattering; (v) nanoFETs: nanomaterial-based electrical detection; and (vi) nanoscale enhancers: nanomaterial-induced metal deposition.