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Issue 14, 2016
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Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2

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Abstract

This paper mainly focuses on the synergistic effect of Sn and N dopants to enhance the photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2 under visible light or simulated solar light irradiation. The Sn and N co-doped TiO2 (SNT-x) photocatalysts were successfully prepared by the facile sol–gel method and the post-nitridation route in the temperature range of 400–550 °C. All the as-prepared samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and electron spin resonance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The characterization results reveal that the co-incorporation of Sn and N atoms remarkably modifies the electronic structure of TiO2, which gives rise to a prominent separation of photogenerated charge carriers and more efficient interfacial charge-transfer reactions in a photocatalytic process. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the intensified active oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and superoxide anion radicals (O2˙) for degradation of organic pollutants. And the result of photocatalytic hydrogen production further confirms the existence of the synergistic effect in the SNT-x samples, because they exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than the sum of N/TiO2 and Sn/TiO2. This work provides a paradigm to consolidate the understanding of the synergistic effect of metal and non-metal co-doped TiO2 in domains of photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry.

Graphical abstract: Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
27 Jan 2016
Accepted
07 Mar 2016
First published
08 Mar 2016

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016,18, 9636-9644
Article type
Paper

Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2

H. Zhuang, Y. Zhang, Z. Chu, J. Long, X. An, H. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Zhang and X. Wang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 9636
DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00580B

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