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Issue 3, 2016
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Classical and semiclassical dynamics in statistical environments with a mixed dynamical and statistical representation

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Abstract

We present a basic theory to study real-time dynamics embedded in a large environment that is treated using a statistical method. In light of great progress in the molecular-level studies on time-resolved spectroscopies, chemical reaction dynamics, and so on, not only in the gas phase but also in condensed phases like liquid solvents and even in crowded environments in living cells, we need to bridge over a gap between statistical mechanics and microscopic real-time dynamics. For instance, an analogy to gas-phase dynamics in which molecules are driven by the gradient of the potential energy hyper-surfaces (PESs) suggests that particles in condensed phases should run on the free energy surface instead. The question is whether this anticipation is correct. To answer it, we here propose a mixed dynamics and statistical representation to treat chemical dynamics embedded in a statistical ensemble. We first define the entropy functional, which is a function of the phase-space position of the dynamical subsystem, being dressed with statistical weights from the statistical counterpart. We then consider the functionals of temperature, free energy, and chemical potential as their extensions in statistical mechanics, through which one can clarify the relationship between real-time microscopic dynamics and statistical quantities. As an illustrative example we show that molecules in the dynamical subsystem should run on the free-energy functional surface, if and only if the spatial gradients of the temperature functional are all zero. Otherwise, additional forces emerge from the gradient of the temperature functional. Numerical demonstrations are presented at the very basic level of this theory of molecular dissociation in atomic cluster solvents.

Graphical abstract: Classical and semiclassical dynamics in statistical environments with a mixed dynamical and statistical representation

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Publication details

The article was received on 12 Oct 2015, accepted on 07 Dec 2015 and first published on 07 Dec 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5CP06161J
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Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016,18, 1771-1785

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    Classical and semiclassical dynamics in statistical environments with a mixed dynamical and statistical representation

    K. Takatsuka and K. Matsumoto, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 1771
    DOI: 10.1039/C5CP06161J

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