Exploring environment-dependent effects of Pd nanostructures on reactive oxygen species (ROS) using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique: implications for biomedical applications†
Recently, because of the great advances in tailoring their shape and structure, palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been receiving increasing attention in biomedical fields apart from their traditional application as industrial catalysts. When considering the potential uses of Pd NPs in biomedicine, their catalytic properties need to be evaluated under physiologically relevant conditions. In this article, we demonstrate that Pd nanostructures (NSs, both commercial Pd NPs and in-house-prepared Au@Pd nanorods) can induce O2 or ˙OH production depending on pH values in the presence of H2O2. We observed that O2 is produced under neutral and alkaline conditions but ˙OH under acidic conditions. We also found that Pd NSs can scavenge superoxide and singlet oxygen, which may provide protection in biological systems. On the other hand, their oxidase-like activity may accelerate the oxidation of ascorbic acid and thus may produce negative biological effects. The presented study will provide useful guidance for designing noble metal nanostructures with desired catalytic and biological properties in biomedical applications.