Discovery of a naturally occurring broad-spectrum inhibitor against gut bacterial β-glucuronidases from Ginkgo biloba†
Gut bacterial β-glucuronidases (GUS) play an important role in deconjugation of various O-glucuronides, which are tightly linked with the drug-induced intestinal toxicity. Increasing evidence has indicated that inhibition of bacterial GUS could alleviate GUS-associated intestinal toxicity, but the potent and broad-spectrum inhibitors against multiple bacterial GUS have been rarely reported. This study aimed to find potent and broad-spectrum GUS inhibitors from Ginkgo biloba. It was found that amentoflavone displayed relatively strong inhibition on three GUS including CpGUS, SpasGUS and EcGUS. Further investigations demonstrated that amentoflavone could inhibit GUS-mediated PNPG hydrolysis in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 2.36 μM, 2.88 μM and 3.43 μM for CpGUS, SpasGUS and EcGUS, respectively. Inhibition kinetic studies showed that amentoflavone functioned as a non-competitive inhibitor against all tested GUS with Ki values of less than 2 μM. Docking simulations indicated that amentoflavone could tightly bind on allosteric sites of three GUS mainly via hydrogen bonding interactions, and the number of hydroxyl groups of amentoflavone played crucial roles in these interactions. Collectively, our findings suggested that amentoflavone was a potent broad-spectrum inhibitor against bacterial GUS, which can be used as a promising lead compound for developing novel agents to alleviate GUS-associated intestinal toxicity.