Synthesis and biological activities of local anesthetics
Local anesthetics are mainly used in stomatology, ophthalmology, gynecology and surgery to temporarily relieve pain. Local anesthetics act on nerve endings or around nerve trunks, and are combined with specific sodium ion (Na+) channel sites on the nerve membrane. They can affect the membrane potential by reducing Na+ passage through sodium ion channels, thus blocking the generation and conduction of nerve impulses, reversibly blocking the generation and conduction of sensory nerve impulses. Local anesthetics are used for convenience in local surgical operations and treatments. Herein, we mainly review the research progress on local anesthetics and discuss the important aspects of design, synthesis and biological activity of various new compounds.