Human periodontal ligament stem cells on calcium phosphate scaffold delivering platelet lysate to enhance bone regeneration†
Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are promising for tissue engineering applications but have received relatively little attention. Human platelet lysate (HPL) contains a cocktail of growth factors. To date, there has been no report on hPDLSC seeding on scaffolds loaded with HPL. The objectives of this study were to develop a calcium phosphate cement (CPC)–chitosan scaffold loaded with HPL and investigate their effects on hPDLSC viability, osteogenic differentiation and bone mineral synthesis for the first time. hPDLSCs were harvested from extracted human teeth. Scaffolds were formed by mixing CPC powder with a chitosan solution containing HPL. Four groups were tested: CPC–chitosan + 0% HPL (control); CPC–chitosan + 2.66% HPL; CPC–chitosan + 5.31% HPL; CPC–chitosan + 10.63% HPL. Scanning electron microscopy, live/dead staining, CCK-8, qRT-PCR, alkaline phosphatase and bone minerals assay were applied for hPDLSCs on scaffolds. hPDLSCs attached well on CPC–chitosan scaffold. Adding 10.63% HPL into CPC increased cell proliferation and viability (p < 0.05). ALP gene expression of CPC–chitosan + 10.63% HPL was 7-fold that of 0% HPL at 14 days. Runx2, OSX and Coll1 of CPC–chitosan + 10.63% HPL was 2–3 folds those at 0% HPL (p < 0.05). ALP activity of CPC–chitosan + 10.63% HPL was 2-fold that at 0% HPL (p < 0.05). Bone minerals synthesized by hPDLSCs for CPC–chitosan + 10.63% HPL was 3-fold that at 0% HPL (p < 0.05). This study showed that CPC–chitosan scaffold was a promising carrier for HPL delivery, and HPL in CPC exerted excellent promoting effects on hPDLSCs for bone tissue engineering for the first time. The novel hPDLSC–CPC–chitosan–HPL construct has great potential for orthopedic, dental and maxillofacial regenerative applications.