Direct N-heterocyclization of hydrazines to access styrylated pyrazoles: synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles and dihydropyrazoles†
A microwave-assisted method has been developed for the synthesis of tri-substituted pyrazoles via direct N-heterocyclization of hydrazines with metal-acetylacetonate and -dibenzylideneacetonate without using any base or additives. Most importantly, the synthesis of 1-aryl-5-phenyl-3-styryl-1H-pyrazoles was achieved in a single step using hydrochloride salt of various phenylhydrazines and this is the first report for direct construction of these molecules. The reaction medium and microwave conditions play a critical role for their selective product formation during the reaction. The present reaction explored the usage of metal-diketonic complexes as reaction substrates providing acetylacetone and dibenzylideneacetone moieties to directly participate in cyclization with hydrazines to form the corresponding pyrazoles in excellent yields. The present protocol introduces the important N-heterocyclic moieties in the final structures, giving the reaction great applications from a medicinal chemistry perspective, particularly in the late stage modification strategies in drug discovery.