Complete validation of a continuous and blood-correlated sweat biosensing device with integrated sweat stimulation
A wearable sweat biosensing device is demonstrated that stimulates sweat and continuously measures sweat ethanol concentrations at 25 s intervals, which is then correlated with blood ethanol during a >3 hour testing phase. The testing involves a baseline condition (no ethanol) followed by a rapid blood and sweat rise of ethanol (oral bolus), and finally, the physiological response of the body as ethanol concentrations return to baseline (metabolized). Data sets include multiple in vivo validation trials and careful in vitro characterization of the electrochemical enzymatic ethanol sensor against likely interferents. Furthermore, the data is analyzed through known pharmacokinetic models with a strong linear Pearson correlation of 0.9474–0.9996. The continuous nature of the data also allows analysis of blood-to-sweat lag times that range between 2.3 to 11.41 min for ethanol signal onset and 19.32 to 34.44 min for the overall pharmacokinetic curve lag time. This work represents a significant advance that builds upon a continuum of previous work. However, unresolved questions include operation for 24 hours or greater and with analytes beyond those commonly explored for sweat (electrolytes and metabolites). Regardless, this work validates that sweat biosensing can provide continuous and blood-correlated data in an integrated wearable device.