Improving the cyclability performance of lithium-ion batteries by introducing lithium difluorophosphate (LiPO2F2) additive†
The cyclability of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is often affected by the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer which is generated from electrochemical decomposition of electrolyte. Here, lithium difluorophosphate (LiPO2F2) is studied in this work. When 1.6 wt% LiPO2F2 additive is incorporated into the reference electrolyte, the capacity retention of graphite/Li half-cell is increased from 82.53% to 98.04% and the capacity retention of LiCoO2/Li half-cell is increased from 89.60% to 97.53% after 160 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates that the SEI layer containing LiPO2F2 can decrease the surface impedance of cells in the last stage cycle. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), DFT calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that LiPO2F2 is deposited on the surface of both LiCoO2 and graphite electrodes, which effectively protects the graphite anode and suppresses the degradation of the cathode during the long-term cycling of LIBs.