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Issue 8, 2016
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Selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone using in situ generated ruthenium nanoparticles derived from Ru–NHC complexes

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Abstract

Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone (GVL) was studied by using mono- and bidentate p-cymene ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes as catalyst precursors. In water, all complexes were found to be reduced in situ to form ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) with a high hydrogenation activity. In organic solvents, complexes with monodentate NHC ligands also formed nanoparticles, while complexes with bidentate ligands gave rise to stable homogeneous catalysts with moderate hydrogenation activities.

Graphical abstract: Selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone using in situ generated ruthenium nanoparticles derived from Ru–NHC complexes

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
30 Aug 2015
Accepted
11 Jan 2016
First published
14 Jan 2016

This article is Open Access

Dalton Trans., 2016,45, 3558-3563
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone using in situ generated ruthenium nanoparticles derived from Ru–NHC complexes

B. Y. Tay, C. Wang, P. H. Phua, L. P. Stubbs and H. V. Huynh, Dalton Trans., 2016, 45, 3558
DOI: 10.1039/C5DT03366G

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