Construction of 3D nanostructure hierarchical porous graphitic carbons by charge-induced self-assembly and nanocrystal-assisted catalytic graphitization for supercapacitors†
A smart and sustainable strategy based on charge-induced self-assembly and nanocrystal-assisted catalytic graphitization is explored for the efficient construction of 3D nanostructure hierarchical porous graphitic carbons from the pectin biopolymer. The electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged pectin chains and magnesium ions plays a crucial role in the formation of 3D architectures. The 3D HPGCs possess a three-dimensional carbon framework with a hierarchical porous structure, flake-like graphitic carbon walls and high surface area (1320 m2 g−1). The 3D HPGCs show an outstanding specific capacitance of 274 F g−1 and excellent rate capability with a high capacitance retention of 85% at a high current density of 50 A g−1 for supercapacitor electrodes. This strategy provided a novel approach to effectively construct 3D porous carbon nanostructures from biopolymers.