Fruits, vegetables and their polyphenols protect dietary lipids from oxidation during gastric digestion†
Previous studies indicate that the ingestion of oxidized vegetable oils leads to the incorporation of chemically reactive molecules issued from the decomposition of the initial lipid hydroperoxides into lipoproteins. The aim of the present study is to investigate the oxidation of dietary lipids in the gastric compartment and their inhibition by plant polyphenols provided either as fruit and vegetables (F&V) or an extract. Six minipigs received a standard Western diet containing primarily sunflower oil, ground beef meat, and starch. Polyphenols in different matrix forms were ingested either as cubed F&V or as the corresponding hydroacetonic extract. Sampling of the gastric digesta allowed the kinetic investigation of pH, heme and non-heme iron forms, total lipids, lipid-derived conjugated dienes (CD) and TBARS. F&V and the corresponding polyphenol extract delayed the gastric digestion process as shown for total lipid and heme iron contents. This study also demonstrated the occurrence of in vivo oxidation of dietary lipids in the presence of meat iron. Interestingly, F&V played a protective role by totally inhibiting the accumulation of CD while largely decreasing the formation of TBARS. The polyphenol extract similarly slowed down the TBARS formation although it had no effect on the CD accumulation.