Spectroscopic evidence for the origin of the dumbbell cyclic voltammogram of single-walled carbon nanotubes†
We investigated the changes in charge carrier density responsible for the dumbbell-like cyclic voltammogram of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) used as electric double layer capacitor electrodes. We utilized in situ Raman spectroscopy of SWCNTs in the potential range where the dumbbell voltammogram is observed and electric double layer charging would be the dominant mechanism. The study revealed that, unexpectedly, the spectroscopic changes coinciding with the dumbbell steps on the voltammogram occur more sharply in metallic tubes, as seen from (1) the sudden enhancement in the intensity of the BWF Breit–Wigner–Fano (BWF) feature, (2) a considerably more significant frequency upshift of G+ and G′ bands, and (3) a drop in radial breathing mode intensity, compared to those in the spectra of semiconducting tubes. In addition, the spectroscopic changes observed with open-end SWCNT samples were more defined and correlated more accurately with the electronic structure of the tubes compared to those observed with closed-end SWCNTs.