Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.

Issue 43, 2011
Previous Article Next Article

Fullerenes encaging metal clusters—clusterfullerenes

Author affiliations


Clusterfullerenes represent a novel branch of endohedral fullerenes, which are characterized by a robust fullerene cage with metal clusters encaged in its hollow. Since the discovery of nitride clusterfullerenes (NCFs) in 1999, the family of clusterfullerenes has been significantly expanded within the past decade, with new members including carbide clusterfullerenes (CCFs), hydrocarbide clusterfullerenes (HCCFs), oxide clusterfullerenes (OCFs), sulfide clusterfullerenes (SCFs), and carbonitride clusterfullerenes (CNCFs). We first present the classification of clusterfullerenes and list all the clusterfullerenes reported to date. For each type of clusterfullerenes, we review in detail their synthesis, separation, intriguing molecular structures and properties. For NCFs, as the first and most important clusterfullerenes, we point out the significance of their discovery and focus on their new synthesis and separation methods as well as the new advances. Finally the potential applications of clusterfullerenes are addressed. We conclude that clusterfullerenes appear to be the fastest growing family of endohedral fullerenes up to now, and emphasize the importance of exploring new structures and chemical functionalizations of clusterfullerenes.

Graphical abstract: Fullerenes encaging metal clusters—clusterfullerenes

Back to tab navigation

Article information

21 Apr 2011
20 May 2011
First published
30 Jun 2011

Chem. Commun., 2011,47, 11822-11839
Article type
Feature Article

Fullerenes encaging metal clusters—clusterfullerenes

S. Yang, F. Liu, C. Chen, M. Jiao and T. Wei, Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 11822
DOI: 10.1039/C1CC12318A

Social activity

Search articles by author