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Themed collection Ionic liquids: from fundamental properties to practical applications

30 items
Paper

Selective separation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural from an aqueous solution using a supported hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent liquid membrane

For the first time, 12 different supported deep eutectic solvent (DES) liquid membranes were prepared and characterized.

Graphical abstract: Selective separation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural from an aqueous solution using a supported hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent liquid membrane
Paper

New dimensions in salt–solvent mixtures: a 4th evolution of ionic liquids

The important properties and applications of molecular liquid mixtures with ionic liquids and low melting organic salts are discussed.

Graphical abstract: New dimensions in salt–solvent mixtures: a 4th evolution of ionic liquids
Paper

Design principles from multiscale simulations to predict nanostructure in self-assembling ionic liquids

Nanoscale MD simulations with the Effective Fragment Potential are performed on aqueous mixtures of dialkylimidazolium ILs paired with three anions, producing insights on ionic domain structure. Ionic domain structure is correlated to nanoscale structure as determined by SAXS.

Graphical abstract: Design principles from multiscale simulations to predict nanostructure in self-assembling ionic liquids
Open Access Paper

Molecular scale structure and dynamics at an ionic liquid/electrode interface

The structural arrangement and dynamics of ions near the IL/electrode interface during charging and discharging was studied by a combination of time resolved X-ray reflectivity and impedance spectroscopy.

Graphical abstract: Molecular scale structure and dynamics at an ionic liquid/electrode interface
Paper

Exfoliation of graphene and fluorographene in molecular and ionic liquids

We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the exfoliation of graphene and fluorographene in molecular and ionic liquids using computer experiments in which one layer of the 2D nanomaterial is peeled, in vacuum or with solvent present.

Graphical abstract: Exfoliation of graphene and fluorographene in molecular and ionic liquids
Paper

Atomic charges of sulfur in ionic liquids: experiments and calculations

A wide variety of experimental and computational methods are used to probe sulfur atomic charges in ionic liquids.

Graphical abstract: Atomic charges of sulfur in ionic liquids: experiments and calculations
Paper

Low-temperature and high-pressure phases of a room-temperature ionic liquid and polyiodides: 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide

Experimental results are summarized on the PTm diagram. In pure [C3mim][I], amorphous phase appeared both at low-temperature and high-pressure. Stoichiometric [C3mim][I3] promotes crystallization, while non-stoichiometric [C3mim][I3.66] indicates anomalies.

Graphical abstract: Low-temperature and high-pressure phases of a room-temperature ionic liquid and polyiodides: 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide
Open Access Paper

Low cost ionic liquid–water mixtures for effective extraction of carbohydrate and lipid from algae

Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids and sugars.

Graphical abstract: Low cost ionic liquid–water mixtures for effective extraction of carbohydrate and lipid from algae
Paper

ILs through the looking glass: electrostatics and structure probed using charge-inverted ionic liquid pairs

Ionic liquids combining potassium cations with 1-alkyl-3-methylcyclopentadienyl anions, K[CnC1Cp] (n = 4 and 6) have been synthesized.

Graphical abstract: ILs through the looking glass: electrostatics and structure probed using charge-inverted ionic liquid pairs
Paper

How ionic species structure influences phase structure and transitions from protic ionic liquids to liquid crystals to crystals

Phase behaviour of n-alkylammonium (C6 to C16) nitrates and formates was characterised using synchrotron small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, cross polarised optical microscopy and FTIR.

Graphical abstract: How ionic species structure influences phase structure and transitions from protic ionic liquids to liquid crystals to crystals
Paper

Fundamental properties and practical applications of ionic liquids: concluding remarks

The Faraday Discussion on Ionic Liquids: From Fundamental Properties to Practical Applications took place in Cambridge in September 2017. A summary of the conference and a vision for the future of ionic liquids are presented.

Graphical abstract: Fundamental properties and practical applications of ionic liquids: concluding remarks
Open Access Paper

Time-resolved SERS study of the oxygen reduction reaction in ionic liquid electrolytes for non-aqueous lithium–oxygen cells

We use the Raman active bands of O2˙ to probe its changing Lewis basicity through its interaction with various ionic liquid electrolytes at the electrode surface.

Graphical abstract: Time-resolved SERS study of the oxygen reduction reaction in ionic liquid electrolytes for non-aqueous lithium–oxygen cells
Paper

Exploring the bulk-phase structure of ionic liquid mixtures using small-angle neutron scattering

Small-angle neutron scattering experiments, supported by molecular dynamics simulations, have been performed on a range of compositions of the [C2mim]1−x[C12mim]x[Tf2N] ionic liquid mixture system.

Graphical abstract: Exploring the bulk-phase structure of ionic liquid mixtures using small-angle neutron scattering
Paper

Determining the composition of the vacuum–liquid interface in ionic-liquid mixtures

The vacuum–liquid interfaces of a number of ionic-liquid mixtures have been investigated using a combination of RAS-LIF, selected surface tension measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations.

Graphical abstract: Determining the composition of the vacuum–liquid interface in ionic-liquid mixtures
Paper

Biredox ionic liquids: new opportunities toward high performance supercapacitors

Nowadays, commercial supercapacitors are based on purely capacitive storage, and porous carbons are used as electrodes.

Graphical abstract: Biredox ionic liquids: new opportunities toward high performance supercapacitors
Open Access Paper

The Au(111)/IL interfacial nanostructure in the presence of precursors and its influence on the electrodeposition process

Ionic liquids have attracted significant interest as electrolytes for the electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors, but the details of the deposition processes are not yet well understood.

Graphical abstract: The Au(111)/IL interfacial nanostructure in the presence of precursors and its influence on the electrodeposition process
Paper

Anomalous electroless deposition of less noble metals on Cu in ionic liquids and its application towards battery electrodes

Electroless deposition can be triggered by the difference in the redox potentials between two metals in an electrolyte.

Graphical abstract: Anomalous electroless deposition of less noble metals on Cu in ionic liquids and its application towards battery electrodes
Paper

Structure and lifetimes in ionic liquids and their mixtures

With the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the structure and dynamics of different ionic liquid systems.

Graphical abstract: Structure and lifetimes in ionic liquids and their mixtures
Paper

Interfacial structure and structural forces in mixtures of ionic liquid with a polar solvent

Oscillatory and monotonic decay in mixtures of salt and solvent at interfaces with varying surface charge.

Graphical abstract: Interfacial structure and structural forces in mixtures of ionic liquid with a polar solvent
Paper

Applying neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution to the structure and proton-transport pathways in protic imidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ionic liquids

Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been applied to examine the potential for complex-ion formation in protic imidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ionic liquids.

Graphical abstract: Applying neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution to the structure and proton-transport pathways in protic imidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ionic liquids
Paper

Effects of the ether oxygen atom in alkyl side chains on the physical properties of piperidinium ionic liquids

Various types of piperidinium ionic liquids equipped with an oxygen atom-containing alkyl side chain on the positively charged nitrogen atom were systematically synthesized and their physical properties investigated.

Graphical abstract: Effects of the ether oxygen atom in alkyl side chains on the physical properties of piperidinium ionic liquids
Paper

Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes

Amphoteric water was mixed with equimolar amounts of a super-strong acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), and a super-strong base, 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-7-undecene (DBU) to explore the properties as fuel cell electrolytes.

Graphical abstract: Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes
Paper

Interactions and stabilisation of acetone, sulfur dioxide and water with 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [OMIM][BF4] at low temperatures

After heating the acetone under the porous [OMIM][BF4] to 120 K, the acetone diffuses into pores lined with octyl chains (destabilised acetone) and pores lined with ions (stabilised acetone).

Graphical abstract: Interactions and stabilisation of acetone, sulfur dioxide and water with 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [OMIM][BF4] at low temperatures
Open Access Paper

Impact of SCILL catalysts for the S–S coupling of thiols to disulfides

SCILL catalysts are active and selective for the S–S coupling of thiols to the corresponding disulfides showing a significantly increased stability.

Graphical abstract: Impact of SCILL catalysts for the S–S coupling of thiols to disulfides
Paper

Brønsted acidity in deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids

Relative pH values are calculated using an indicator dye and a glass electrode, and they are found to provide consistent results.

Graphical abstract: Brønsted acidity in deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids
Paper

Nano-mechanics of ionic liquids at dielectric and metallic interfaces

Using a dynamic surface force apparatus, we investigate the nano-mechanics and the nano-rheology of an ionic liquid at dielectric and metallic solid surfaces.

Graphical abstract: Nano-mechanics of ionic liquids at dielectric and metallic interfaces
Discussion

Phase behaviour and thermodynamics: general discussion

Discussion

Ionic liquids at interfaces: general discussion

Discussion

Structure and dynamics of ionic liquids: general discussion

Discussion

Electrochemistry: general discussion

30 items

About this collection

We are delighted to share with you a selection of the papers which will be presented at our Faraday Discussion on Ionic liquids: from fundamental properties to practical applications taking place in Cambridge, United Kingdom in September 2017. More information about the event may be found here: http://rsc.li/ionicliquids-fd2017. Additional articles will be added to the collection as they are published. The final versions of all the articles presented and a record of the live discussions will be published after the event.

ILs have been the focus of intense research over the last 20 years because of their remarkable potential for applications coupled to favourable environmental properties. ILs are also a medium whereby the nature of the complex interactions (Coulombic, van der Waals and hydrogen bonding) provides a liquid whose structure and properties can be tuned by the choice of the cation and anion wherein reactions are likely to be distinct in terms of activity and selectivity profiles compared with common molecular solvents.

Over the last three years, there has been an increase in the range of ionic liquids (ILs) utilised and significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental aspects of these materials. Therefore, the time is apt for Faraday Discussions to provide a foundation for future fundamental challenges and theories which need to be developed to move the subject area forward.

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