Isolation and structural analysis of the covalent adduct formed between a bis-amino mitoxantrone analogue and DNA: a pathway to major–minor groove cross-linked adducts
The major covalent adduct formed between a 13C-labelled formaldehyde activated bis-amino mitoxantrone analogue (WEHI-150) and the hexanucleotide d(CG5MeCGCG)2 has been isolated by HPLC chromatography and the structure determined by NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that WEHI-150 forms one covalent bond through a primary amine to the N-2 of the G2 residue, with the polycyclic ring structure intercalated at the 5MeC3pG4/G10p5MeC9 site. Furthermore, the WEHI-150 aromatic ring system is oriented approximately parallel to the long axis of the base pairs, with one aliphatic side-chain in the major groove and the other side-chain in the minor groove. This study indicates that mitoxantrone derivatives like WEHI-150 should be capable of forming major–minor groove cross-linked adducts that will likely produce considerably different intracellular biological properties compared to known anthracycline and anthracenedione anticancer drugs.