The design and biomedical applications of self-assembled two-dimensional organic biomaterials
The design and applications of some inorganic two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, graphyne, and borophene have been widely studied in recent years. Meanwhile, it has been noticed that self-assembling two-dimensional organic biomaterials (2DOBMs) including films, membranes, nanosheets, nanoribbons, grids, arrays, and lattices based on various biomolecules also exhibited promising structures, functions, and applications. The in-depth studies on the self-assembly formation, structural and functional tailoring of 2DOBMs open new avenues for the next generation of novel nanomaterials with adjustable structure and functions, which would further promote the applications of 2DOBMs in materials science, nanodevices, energy and environmental science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, and analytical science. In this review, we summarize important information on the basic principles to fabricate self-assembling 2DOBMs based on peptides, proteins, DNA, RNA, viruses, and other biopolymers. The potential strategies and techniques for tailoring and controlling the structures and functions of 2DOBMs are presented and discussed further. The function-specific biomedical applications of 2DOBMs in biosensors, biomimetic mineralization, cell growth, drug/gene delivery, and bioimaging are also highlighted.