Structural aspects of phenylglycines, their biosynthesis and occurrence in peptide natural products
Covering up to February 2015
Phenylglycine-type amino acids occur in a wide variety of peptide natural products, including glycopeptide antibiotics and biologically active linear and cyclic peptides. Sequencing of biosynthesis gene clusters of chloroeremomycin, balhimycin and pristinamycin paved the way for intensive investigations on the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine (Hpg), 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (Dpg) and phenylglycine (Phg) in recent years. The significance and importance of this type of unusual non-proteinogenic aromatic amino acids also for medicinal chemistry has drawn the attention of many research groups and pharmaceutical companies. Herein structures and properties of phenylglycine containing natural products as well as the biosynthetic origin and incorporation of phenylglycines are discussed.