In vitro and in vivo models for anti-amyloidosis nanomedicines
Amyloid diseases are global epidemics characterized by the accumulative deposits of cross-beta amyloid fibrils and plaques. Despite decades of intensive research, few solutions are available for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these debilitating diseases. Since the early work on the interaction of human β2-microglobulin and nanoparticles by Linse et al. in 2007, the field of amyloidosis inhibition has gradually evolved into a new frontier in nanomedicine offering numerous interdisciplinary research opportunities, especially for materials, chemistry and biophysics. In this review we summarise, for the first time, the in vitro and in vivo models employed thus far in the field of anti-amyloidosis nanomedicines. Based on this systematic summary, we bring forth the notion that, due to the complex and often overlapping physiopathologies of amyloid diseases, there is a crucial need for the appropriate use of in vitro and in vivo models for validating novel anti-amyloidosis nanomedicines, and there is a crucial need for the development of new animal models that reflect the behavioural, symptomatic and cross-talk hallmarks of amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) diseases and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles