Niobium pentoxide based materials for high rate rechargeable electrochemical energy storage
The demand for high rate energy storage systems is continuously increasing driven by portable electronics, hybrid/electric vehicles and the need for balancing the smart grid. Accordingly, Nb2O5 based materials have gained great attention because of their fast cation intercalation faradaic charge storage that endows them with high rate energy storage performance. In this review, we describe the crystalline features of the five main phases of Nb2O5 and analyze their specific electrochemical characteristics with an emphasis on the intrinsic ion intercalation pseudocapacitive behavior of T-Nb2O5. The charge storage mechanisms, electrochemical performance and state-of-the-art characterization techniques for Nb2O5 anodes are summarized. Next, we review recent progress in developing various types of Nb2O5 based fast charging electrode materials, including Nb2O5 based mixed metal oxides and composites. Finally, we highlight the major challenges for Nb2O5 based materials in the realm of high rate rechargeable energy storage and provide perspectives for future research.