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Issue 4, 2020
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Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: are marine phospholipids the answer?

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Abstract

Since the discovery that Greenlandic Innuits had a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to their diet of fish and as a consequence high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake, scientific interest in the therapeutic value of n-3 PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has grown. It is well-accepted that fish consumption is associated with the prevention of inflammation and CVD. As a result, fish oil supplements and nutraceuticals are widely consumed. Conversely, recent meta-analyses have cast doubt over the benefits n-3 PUFA due to heterogenous outcomes of numerous randomized controlled trials. However, the majority of clinical studies conducted have used n-3 PUFA supplements in their neutral forms as free fatty acids or bound to triacylglycerides (TAG) or ethyl esters. Current research indicates that n-3 PUFA bound to polar lipids (PL) such as phospholipids seem to exert differential bioavailability and biological effects upon consumption in contrast to neutral forms of n-3 PUFA. In this review, we discuss the promising health benefits of marine PL rich in n-3 PUFA that seem to go beyond those of neutral n-3 PUFA. However, further intensive research is required to discern the full extent of the biological activities of marine n-3 PL and their potential use in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Graphical abstract: Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: are marine phospholipids the answer?

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Article information


Submitted
31 heinä 2019
Accepted
02 huhti 2020
First published
03 huhti 2020

Food Funct., 2020,11, 2861-2885
Article type
Review Article

Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: are marine phospholipids the answer?

R. Lordan, S. Redfern, A. Tsoupras and I. Zabetakis, Food Funct., 2020, 11, 2861
DOI: 10.1039/C9FO01742A

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