Themed collection Environmental exposure and impacts
A framework to model exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor environments
We propose a framework based on exposure models for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) to describe the emission and transport of, and exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in indoor environments.
Placenta as a target of trichloroethylene toxicity
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent and a common environmental contaminant. Reactive metabolites of TCE disrupt placental cell functions important for pregnancy health.
A perspective on the role of fugacity and activity for evaluating the PBT properties of organic chemicals and providing a multi-media synoptic indicator of environmental contamination
We present a perspective on how models based on the equilibrium criteria of fugacity and chemical activity can contribute to evaluation of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria.
A critical review on the potential impacts of neonicotinoid insecticide use: current knowledge of environmental fate, toxicity, and implications for human health
The review examines literature relevant to environmental fate, transformation, and toxicity, and human exposure and health risks of neonicotinoid insecticides.
Association of phthalate exposure with precocious and delayed pubertal timing in girls and boys: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Herein, recent studies were evaluated to obtain regulation results in relation to puberty status and phthalate exposure in children.
Reproductive and developmental health effects of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a common contaminant in both occupational and community settings.
Trichloroethylene, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in the risk for Parkinson's disease
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile organic solvent, released into the environment from industrial sites. It contaminates ground water and soil and poses a vapor intrusion hazard for residential and commercial buildings.
Emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in human milk from Sweden and China
Emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were investigated in human milk from Stockholm (Sweden), and the cities of Shanghai, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing (China).
Short-term exposure to low concentrations of copper oxide nanoparticles can negatively impact the ecological performance of a cosmopolitan freshwater fungus
Short term exposure to very low concentrations of CuO NPs can have an impact on freshwater ecological processes.
An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)
Systematic description of more than 200 uses of PFAS and the individual substances associated with each of them (over 1400 PFAS in total).
Spatial/temporal distribution and multi-pathway cancer risk assessment of trihalomethanes in low TOC and high bromide groundwater
This study aims (1) to determine seasonal and spatial distribution of THMs in chlorinated groundwater containing low levels of organic matter (0.4–0.8 mg L−1) and low to high levels of bromine (40–380 μg L−1), and (2) to evaluate the multi-route cancer risks associated with THMs.
Natural estrogens in surface waters of a catchment with intensive livestock farming in Switzerland
Agriculture is a source of natural estrogens such as 17β-estradiol in streams, but in our study concentrations never exceeded European environmental quality standards for more than a day.
Quantitative evaluation and the toxicity mechanism of synergism within three organophosphorus pesticide mixtures to Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) pollutants in the environment pose toxicity risks to living organisms, and the possible toxicity mechanism needs to be further clarified.
An emerging mobile air pollution source: outdoor plastic liner manufacturing sites discharge VOCs into urban and rural areas
The in situ manufacture of cured-in-place-pipe (CIPP) plastic liners in damaged sewer pipes is an emerging mobile source of anthropogenic air pollution.
Levels and sources of PBDEs and PCBs in human nails from e-waste, urban, and rural areas in South China
Human nails can be used as a suitable indicator of human exposure to PCBs and PBDEs.
The sorption behaviour of amine micropollutants on polyethylene microplastics – impact of aging and interactions with green seaweed
Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment.
Toxicity of exhaust particulates and gaseous emissions from gasohol (ethanol blended gasoline)-fuelled spark ignition engines
Blending of oxygenated additives with gasoline has been advocated to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce hazardous health effects of gaseous emissions and particulate matter (PM) emitted by internal combustion (IC) engines in the transport sector worldwide.
Predictors of urban household variability of indoor PM2.5 in low socio-economic communities
In epidemiological studies, levels of PM2.5 need to be estimated over time and space.
Compound health risk assessment of cumulative heavy metal exposure: a case study of a village near a battery factory in Henan Province, China
The concentrations of the heavy metals Hg, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn in soil, groundwater, air, and locally produced grain (wheat and corn) and vegetables were determined in a village near a battery factory in Xinxiang, Henan Province, China.
Cooking and electronic cigarettes leading to large differences between indoor and outdoor particle composition and concentration measured by aerosol mass spectrometry
This study assesses aerosol chemical composition PM1 (<1 μm) with the state-of-the-art techniques inside and outside of an occupied residence.
Distribution and leaching behavior of organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in soil in Chengdu
29 surface farmland soil samples were collected to investigate the spatial distribution and composition characteristics of 13 organophosphorus flame retardants, 11 polybrominated diphenyl esters and 8 novel brominated flame retardants.
Spatial distribution of heavy metals in the West Dongting Lake floodplain, China
The protection of Dongting Lake is important because it is an overwintering and migration route for many rare and endangered birds of East Asia and Australasia, but an assessment of heavy metal contamination in West Dongting Lake is lacking.
The occurrence and distribution of nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates in different species of fish
The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation of nonylphenols (NPs) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) in the muscles, liver, and bile of flounder (Platichthys flesus), cod (Gadus morhua), and eels (Anguilla anguilla).
Temporal trends of suspect- and target-per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), extractable organic fluorine (EOF) and total fluorine (TF) in pooled serum from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden, 1996–2017
Temporal trends (1996–2017) of suspect- and target-per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), extractable organic fluorine (EOF) and total fluorine (TF) were determined in first-time mothers from Uppsala, Sweden.
Acetotrophic methanogens are sensitive to long-term nickel contamination in paddy soil
Paddy soil accounts for approximately one-fifth of the world's cultivated area and faces a serious threat from nickel (Ni).
Participatory science for coastal water quality: freshwater plume mapping and volunteer retention in a randomized informational intervention
This study presents a novel framework for estimating safe swimming distances at beaches and is the first participatory environmental science study to experimentally test strategies for increasing volunteer retention.
Determinants of serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in school children and the contribution of low-level PFAA-contaminated drinking water
In order to improve human health risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), demography/life-style/physiological factors and drinking water PFAA concentrations were investigated as possible determinants of child serum PFAA concentrations.
HNF4a transcription is a target of trichloroethylene toxicity in the embryonic mouse heart
In exploration of congenital heart defects produced by TCE, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4a) transcriptional activity was identified as a central component.
Halogenated semivolatile acetonitriles as chloramination disinfection by-products in water treatment: a new formation pathway from activated aromatic compounds
A new formation pathway has been identified for dichloroacetonitrile, a halogenated semivolatile drinking water disinfection by-product, from activated aromatic compounds.
Developmental toxicity of trichloroethylene in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Embryonic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of TCE disrupts development, morphology, heart rate, and behavior in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system.
Summation of disinfection by-product CHO cell relative toxicity indices: sampling bias, uncertainty, and a path forward
Predicted toxicity has been used to determine if a treatment process is either beneficial or detrimental to the overall DBP toxicological profile of water samples. Selection of the DBPs to measure is important and may result in biased conclusions.
Complex epigenetic patterns in cerebellum generated after developmental exposure to trichloroethylene and/or high fat diet in autoimmune-prone mice
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an environmental contaminant associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and neurotoxicity.
Comprehensive screening of quaternary ammonium surfactants and ionic liquids in wastewater effluents and lake sediments
Quaternary ammonium compounds were found at substantial levels in wastewater effluents and sediment samples with wastewater treatment practices and usage rates determining their environmental prevalence.
Transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides from soil to wild forest flora in an area with enhanced legacy and natural radioactivity in Norway
Estimation of naturally occurring radionuclide (NORM) uptake in biota is an important step in environmental impact and risk assessments.
The effects of ultraviolet disinfection on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis
Ultraviolet disinfection could effectively inactivate the antibiotic resistant bacterium vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis, but had a limited removal efficiency for the antibiotic resistance gene–vanB gene.
Effects of antibiotics on microbial community structure and microbial functions in constructed wetlands treated with artificial root exudates
In the rhizosphere, plant root exudates can mediate the toxicity of antibiotics on microorganisms, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood.
Potential emerging chemical risks in the food chain associated with substances registered under REACH
A screening procedure for the identification of potential emerging chemical risks in the food and feed chain developed in a previous EFSA-sponsored study was applied to 15021 substances registered under the REACH regulation at the time of evaluation.
Risk-based water quality thresholds for coliphages in surface waters: effect of temperature and contamination aging
A quantitative microbial risk assessment framework is used to derive risk-based surface water quality thresholds for coliphages.
The determination of two emerging perfluoroalkyl substances and related halogenated sulfonic acids and their significance for the drinking water supply chain
Analytical methodologies were developed for two emerging PFAS, F3-MSA and HFPO-DA, in order to assess their occurrence and levels in Dutch and Belgian waters and evaluate human health risks due to their presence in drinking water.
Metabolomic profiles associated with exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic environments
Substantial differences in PFAA profiles were associated with significant differences in fatty acid and amino acid profiles.
Aqueous film forming foam and associated perfluoroalkyl substances inhibit methane production and Co-contaminant degradation in an anaerobic microbial community
This work determines the components of aqueous film forming foam responsible for disrupting microbial community functions.
Children's exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids – a modelling approach
The present work assesses the exposure of a child cohort to PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS from 1 year to 10.5 years of age.
Investigation of binding and activity of perfluoroalkyl substances to the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ
In addition to PPARα and PPARγ, PPARβ/δ mediated pathway might also be a potential adverse outcome pathway for PFASs.
Factors affecting spatial and temporal patterns in perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations in migratory aquatic species: a case study of an exploited crustacean
Free-ranging prawns showed substantial spatial and temporal variation in PFOS concentrations, most likely driven by behavioural and physiological factors.
About this collection
This web collection features research articles published in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts focussed on environmental exposure and risk, and biological effects (toxicology).