Molecular Analysis for Art, Archaeometry and Conservation
This Editorial introduces the web collection on Molecular Analysis for Art, Archaeometry and Conservation, guest edited by Francesca Casadio and Richard Van Duyne.
Near infrared (NIR)
spectroscopy: a potential new means of assessing multi-phase earth-built heritage
The analysis of clays within historic earth buildings is commonly achieved through X-ray diffraction, which is reliant upon extraction. Portable near infrared spectroscopy allows in situ differentiation between clays.
Analysis of cadmium-based pigments with time-resolved photoluminescence
For the first time we report the band edge and trap state luminescence decay kinetics of cadmium pigments. The measured lifetimes suggest that carrier recombination is highly influenced by non-radiative decay paths such as electron trapping. Our findings highlight how luminescence measurements are useful in the conservation science field.
Looking beneath Dalí's paint: non-destructive canvas analysis
A new analytical method was developed to non-destructively determine pH and degree of polymerisation (DP) of cellulose in fibres in 19th–20th century painting canvases, and to identify the fibre type: cotton, linen, hemp, ramie or jute.
Is Khirbet Kerak Ware from Khirbet al-Batrawy (Jordan) local or imported pottery?
A multi-analytical approach has been applied to characterize Khirbet Kerak Ware, a distinctive pottery production of Early Bronze III Levant.
Non-destructive characterization of archaeological resins: seeking alteration criteria through vibrational signatures
New insights into copal degradation mechanisms are introduced and relevant analytical strategies for resinous substances through non-destructive approaches by FT-Raman and ATR-IR are presented.
SR-FTIR imaging of the altered cadmium sulfide yellow paints in Henri Matisse's Le Bonheur de vivre (1905–6) – examination of visually distinct degradation regions
Cadmium yellow photo-degradation products are imaged in thin sections from Matisse's Le Bonheur de vivre allowing for degradation mechanism elucidation.
Silver colloidal pastes for
dye analysis of reference and historical textile fibers using direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Silver colloidal pastes, characterized by SEM, allowed the first extractionless SERS identification of two dyes simultaneously on historical Fortuny textiles.
Alteration of Asian lacquer: in-depth insight using a physico-chemical multiscale approach
A new approach was developed as a probe for alteration of Asian lacquer using SEM, microtopography and SR micro-FTIR.
Quantifying degradation of collagen in ancient manuscripts: the case of the Dead Sea Temple Scroll
A quantitative method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy was developed to assess the degree of collagen degradation in historical parchments.
Characterization of the Dead Sea Scrolls by advanced analytical techniques
Fast 2D-XRF scanning helps to differentiate between the minerals from the production process and the sediments from the archaeological site.
Vibrational spectroscopy correlated with elemental analysis for the investigation of smalt pigment and its alteration in paintings
New insights into the chemical structure of smalt pigment, before and after degradation, from the application of synchrotron micro-infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman directly on smalt particles within paint cross-sections.
Proteomics applied to the authentication of fish glue: application to a 17th century artwork sample
This work provides the first identification of fish glue from a few micrograms of a 17th century polychromy sample using an adapted proteomics approach.
Raman spectroscopy analysis of ancient enamelled glass masterpieces
Richly decorated enamelled glass objects and fragments of different provenance and epoch (1st c.–14th c.) have been analysed using mobile and fixed Raman instruments. The comparison with data existing in literature, allowed to discuss the technology of this class of precious artefacts and the potential of the mobile Raman analysis.
Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance
Development of high sensitivity standoff chemical imaging to map artist's selective use of binding media across entire painting.
Systematic study of terahertz time-domain
spectra of historically informed black inks
Advanced iron gall ink corrosion (image courtesy Nationaal Archief) and a terahertz spectrum of model iron gall ink.
Identification of collagen-based materials in cultural heritage
Peptide mass fingerprinting provides species level identification of soft tissue materials from cultural heritage.
Statistical methods and library search approaches for fast and reliable identification of
dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)
SERS combined with simple statistical techniques and library search methods enables fast and reliable identification of dyes from different samples.
Multivariate analysis of
pyrolysis-GC/ MS data for identification of polysaccharide binding media
The method of Thermally assisted Hydrolysis and Methylation (THM) was applied to the analysis of plant gums that can be found in artistic and archaeological objects.
‘It's not easy being green’: a spectroscopic study of green pigments used in illuminated manuscripts
Combining reflectance spectroscopy with an historic literature survey yields a contextualized study of green pigments used in medieval French illuminations.
Characterization of blood in an encrustation on an African mask: spectroscopic and
direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric identification of haem
DART-TOF-MS with in situ derivatisation provides rapid confirmation of the presence of blood in a museum object.
Electrochemical SERS study on a copper electrode of the insoluble organic pigment quinacridone quinone using ionic liquids (BMIMCl and TBAN) as dispersing agents
Electrochemical SERS experiments of the insoluble pigment quinacridone quinone dispersed in ionic liquids (BMIMCl and TBAN) are reported.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint
Development of a SERS-based approach for the detection of various yellow dyestuffs, lake pigments, and oil paints.
SERRS probes for the immunochemical localization of ovalbumin in paintings: an advanced mapping detection approach
The immuno-SERRS procedure combines the selective localization of ovalbumin with the simultaneous Raman mapping of different paint components.
A multiscalar photoluminescence approach to discriminate among semiconducting historical zinc white pigments
In order to fully characterize the zinc white artists' semiconductor pigment (ZnO), much used since the mid-nineteenth century, three historical samples were studied using a combination of synchrotron and macroscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging to allow their differentiation.
About this collection
This collection of papers across Analyst and Analytical Methods highlights cutting edge analytical research from academia, national laboratories and museums showing the most recent analytical breakthroughs in the field of cultural heritage. The articles describe those techniques recently employed to study art and cultural objects at the molecular level, characterising their structure, properties and chemistry. The themed issue is Guest Edited by Francesca Casadio and Richard P. Van Duyne. New articles will be added to this collection as they are published.