Technical Implications of Organic Syntheses in Ball Mills
Ball mills are apparatus designed for the refinement of particles or disagglomeration of aggregated species. Ball milling is a valuable technology for up- and down-stream processes with myriad of applications in the chemical industry, food technology, or pharmacy. Refinement of particles to a defined size generally is accompanied by an increase of the specific surface, which is accompanied by a chemical activation of solids and as a consequence allows reactions to proceed in the solid state. The present chapter is dedicated to achievements of reactive milling in the field of organic synthesis regarding the influence of technological and process parameters of such processes. Whereas technology-based variables consider aspects like the type of ball mill, the milling material, or the filling degree of a milling beaker, values like operating frequency or reaction time are used to set up dedicated process conditions during ball milling. The effect of both types of influences is discussed with the help of different model reactions, while similarities regarding a specific parameter between reactions of different kind are also shown.