Artificial Multicellular Assemblies from Cells Interfaced with Polymers and Nanomaterials
In this chapter we review the recent developments in fabrication of multicellular assemblies from cells modified with polymers and nanomaterials. We focus on the specific properties of such “cyborg” cells that allow a variety of new methods to be used for their assembly into multicellular structures with functions rather different from those of the original cells. We discuss template and external-field-mediated assembly of modified cells as well as various techniques for preparation of tissue spheroids and polyelectrolyte-mediated cell assemblies. Numerous applications of such cell assemblies in tissue engineering, bioprinting, biosensing and bioelectronics are outlined and commented on throughout the chapter.