Carnosine and Vascular Dementia
Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that is expressed in the central nervous system and can easily enter the brain from the periphery. The studies about its actions in the nervous system diseases have been carried out. Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia. Its pathological changes are the development of ischemic white matter lesion, glia activation and cognitive impairment. It appears that there are several compounds showing mild efficacy in VaD patients with different mechanisms. However, so far no drug has been approved to potentially prevent the progress of VaD. Recent reports suggest that carnosine has a protective effect in experimental VaD, which does not involve the carnosine–histidine–histamine metabolic pathway, but may be due to an inhibition of ROS generation, glia activation and myelin degeneration. These data suggest that carnosine may have potential value for the therapeutic treatment in VaD. Further extensive preclinical investigations and substantial evidence regarding to its indepth mechanism will facilitate its application in the treatment of VaD.