Antigenotoxic Effects of Carnosine
Carnosine, a dipeptide especially in human muscle and brain cells is composed of histidine and β-alanine. Carnosine has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular ischemic damage, inflammatory diseases cancer and aging. It may also regulate glycolysis, muscular contraction, oxidative phosphorylation, and stimulate the immune system. Mainly, it has a protective role results from antioxidative and antiglycating activities and chelating effect on pro-oxidative metals. In this chapter we evaluate the antigenotoxic effects of carnosine and its mechanism. Previous studies suggested that carnosine protects DNA and chromosome against endogenous and exogenous genotoxic agents. Over the last two decades, studies on carnosine have been gradually increased and show that it has plenty of beneficial effects for human health. However, we focused on carnosine's antigenotoxic activity due to inhibition of glycalization and ROS production and activation of antioxidant enzymes.