Pickering Suspension, Mini-Emulsion and Emulsion Polymerization
This chapter gives an overview of the development of suspension, mini-emulsion and emulsion polymerization processes in which solid particles are used as Pickering stabilizers. These three heterogeneous polymerization techniques are briefly defined, after which early studies of the phenomenon of Pickering stabilization and its use in suspension polymerization are discussed. After a historic overview of the development of Pickering suspension polymerization, attention is drawn to its use in the fabrication of armoured microstructures. Next, the development of Pickering mini-emulsion polymerization is discussed, looking at the particle and droplet size distributions, Ostwald ripening and coarsening, particle nucleation and coagulation, and rates of polymerization. Finally, the dawn of and advances in Pickering emulsion polymerization are discussed, with comments on particle formation and particle growth.