Bacterial Adhesion and Interaction with Biomaterial Surfaces
Despite decades of intense research efforts in the field of implanted biomaterials, microbial infection still remains a serious problem for long-term use of implanted medical devices. Bacterial adhesion is the critical step in the pathogenesis of biomaterial associated infection. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion and interaction with biomaterial surface as well as the factors influencing bacterial adhesion is important for battling and controlling bacterial adhesion and thereby preventing biomaterial associated microbial infection. This chapter gives a brief introduction of recent progresses on the studies of molecular mechanisms of staphylococcal adhesion and biofilm formation on biomaterial surfaces, and the factors influencing bacterial adhesion including biomaterial surface properties, plasma proteins, and interactions of platelets–bacteria. The chapter also demonstrates the bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on textured biomaterial surface. Results suggest that patterned surface texturing of biomaterials provides an effective means of reducing staphylococcal adhesion and biofilm formation on biomaterial surfaces, and thus to subsequently prevent biomaterial associated infections. Finally, the chapter briefly introduces the techniques and methods used in the study of bacterial adhesion, especially in the development and application of atomic force microscopy.