In this chapter, using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a model plant virus, research on the fabrication of novel hybrid biomaterials is described. First, the chemistry and physics strategies for modifying both the inner and exterior surfaces of TMV nanoparticles are introduced. Various small molecules, such as fluorescent dyes and polymer chains, can be attached to the protein capsid via the formation of traditional linkages and “click” reactions. Metal and metal oxides can also be deposited on TMV, and the conductivity originating from this modification has broadened the application of TMV to nanowires, memory device components and battery electrodes. Self-assembly work carried out above the inherent size of TMV is then discussed. TMV particles are used to construct 1D head-to-tail fibers, 2D films, 3D spherical structures and TMV microarrays. These different assembled patterns were found to have potential applications in memory devices, batteries, optics and biosensing. Genetic engineering of TMV can further extend the applications of TMV in developing novel materials. Functional peptides and protein domains can be inserted into the coat protein of TMV and propagated. The resulting fusion proteins can be employed as platforms for vaccine development to enhance immune response and scaffolds for cell culture to direct cell adhesion and differentiation. In the hybrid biomaterials field, research based on TMV reveals how experts in chemistry, biochemistry and materials science can work together. Ultimately, further and deeper research is still needed to explore the properties of hybrid biomaterials and to extend their practical applications.