The present chapter is focused on the material aspects of the Codex Colombino; it describes the examination of the whole document with imaging techniques: visible, ultraviolet and infrared light as well as stereomicroscopy. A set of non-destructive instrumental methods, such as X-ray fluorescence, UV-VIS spectrometry (colorimetry) and Raman spectroscopy were performed on selected areas. Color samples were analyzed with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We have interpreted the data in terms of the elaboration process, the painting resources as well as the modifications of the document, and the patterns of decay that evidence the life of this object through the systematic analysis of the traces and marks left on the surface of the codex. Also, we discuss the structure of the leather support, and the painting process. We contrast the uses of color, and alterations along with the information that previous analyses and historiographical studies have proposed.