Chemical Modulators for Enzymatic Reactions
Biocatalysis or biotransformation is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries. Many enzymes have been discovered and employed for the preparation of chiral building blocks in industrial-scale transformations, including hydrolases and oxidoreductases. A small number of chemical additives or modulators, such as organic cosolvents, hydrophobic solvents, ionic liquids, or even modifiers/carriers for enzymes, can be found and applied to improve the performance of biocatalysts in enzymatic synthesis. This methodology is very simple and practical, and is a typical example of “chemical biotechnology”.