Aluminium and Zirconium
Aluminium and zirconium are not regarded as carcinogenic to humans or animals. Implications that as constituents of cosmetic preparations aluminium and zirconium act as metallo-oestrogens and are a cause of breast cancer are not substantiated by biological and clinical facts. Both metals cause of granulomas following inhalation and through dermal contact. Increased risk of occupationally associated tumours seen in some aluminium-related industries is not attributable to aluminium but to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, coal tar emissions from coke ovens and other contaminants including arsenic and silica. Neither element is known to be mutagenic in cell culture. Macropages phagocytose alumiunium and zirconium residues in granulomas.