Boron in Electroanalysis
Boron as an element is highly electropositive (metalloid) and present naturally mainly in fully oxidised form (as borate). It has many interesting applications in (electro-)chemical analysis and beneficial effects when used as a dopant, in alloys, or as a materials component. New types of highly porous boron-based covalent framework materials promise to revolutionise hybrid materials design with size selectivity and/or receptor function. When employed in organic boronates, borinates, boranes, and hetero-boranes, there are many applications in particular as (supramolecular or surface-immobilised) Lewis acidic ligands for a range of nucleophilic targets in analytical electrochemistry (anion detection, immunoassays, glycated proteins, microRNA detection, cell recognition). Although generally assumed non-electrochemically active, many boron compounds and boronic acids can also undergo redox transformations to add to their versatility and functionality. This chapter provides a general overview of boron redox reactivity and a review of some recent applications of boron in electroanalysis.