Biomedical Applications of Phosphorus-Containing Polymers
Phosphorus-containing polymers such as PMAEP, PMOEP, PMPC, PVPA, and polyphosphoesters, as is demonstrated in this chapter, have contributed to many advances in the fields of tissue repair and regeneration, medical device development, and tissue engineering. The wide range of applications considered include cardiovascular, ophthalmological, drug and gene delivery, as well as orthopedics. There have been many positive commercial successes in important fields such as in the production of new non-thrombogenic surfaces and ophthalmic devices, but other applications such as the tissue engineering of a new pancreas have proven more challenging. However, significant new fundamental knowledge has resulted from the plethora of research behind these commercial goals. For example, in the section describing some of the phosphorus-containing biomaterials employed in bone and bone-interface repair, their surface chemistry and the subsequent biomineralization processes are discussed in depth. As a result of studying a range of MOEP- and MAEP-grafted ePTFE membranes, it is now possible to relate the nature of the mineral growth to both the surface chemistry and topology of the grafted membranes. Such knowledge will contribute to the development of better biomaterials and inspire future research using phosphorus-based polymers.