Impact on Epigenetics in Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds
Epigenetics refers to modification in gene expression that occurs without a change in DNA sequence. Epigenetic modification mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA influence. Aberrant epigenetic alterations play a significant role in disease development, including cancer. Natural dietary compounds demonstrate cancer prevention activity by regulating expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes through epigenetic mechanisms. Examples of these natural dietary compound-modulated epigenetic events of cancer prevention include retinoic acid from spinach, genistein and daidzein from soybeans, sulforaphane from broccoli, apigenin from celery, quercetin from berries, resveratrol from grapes, EGCG from green tea, vitamin D3 from fish, and curcumin from turmeric. In this review, we focus on the effect of natural dietary compounds on epigenetic modification during the process of cancer development.