Fabrication Techniques of Graphene Nanostructures
Fabrication techniques are crucial to form nanostructures in materials for various applications. This chapter describes various methods and processes to controllably create nanostructures and realize electronic devices in graphene. The reason to use graphene as an example, is due to its great potential in electronics, optoelectronics and renewable energy applications. Although graphene nanostructures are still under active research, we have witnessed great progress in fabrication techniques over the past few years such that it is now possible to realize atomically well-defined structures. We are also able to make graphene nanostructures over centimeter scale and make devices on many different substrates, thanks to the development of synthesis and transfer techniques. During the discussion, we focus on the differences between top-down and bottom-up approaches to help the reader recognize their advantage and limitation. Many of the approaches discussed here could be adapted to other materials.